Something Useful You Should Know about Loader

Loader is widely used in construction projects. Here is an article about it.

What is loadr?

Loaders are mainly used for shoveling, loading, unloading, and transporting bulk materials such as soil, sand, lime, and coal. Besides, it can also perform light excavating operations on rocks and hard soils. If it is replaced with different auxiliary working devices, it can also complete the work of bulldozing, lifting, loading and unloading wood and other materials.

In highway construction, it is mainly used for filling and excavation of roadbed engineering, aggregate and loading of asphalt and cement concrete yard. In addition, it can also carry out operations such as pushing soil and pulling other machinery. Because it has the advantages of fast operation speed, good maneuverability and easy operation, it has developed rapidly and has become the main machinery in earthwork construction and is widely used in construction projects such as highways, railways, buildings, hydropower, ports, and mines.

Liugong loader

What are the main components of loader?

It mainly includes the engine, torque converter, gearbox, and drive axle, that is, the “four major parts”.


The engine is the device that provides power for the truck, and it is the heart of the truck, which determines the power, stability and environmental protection of the truck. According to different power sources, engines can be divided into diesel engines, gasoline engines, electric engines, and hybrids. Common gasoline engines and diesel engines belong to reciprocating piston internal combustion engines, which convert the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy of piston motion and output power to the outside.

The components of the engine are five systems and two institutions. The five systems are the fuel supply system, the cooling system, the lubrication system, the ignition system, and the starting system; the two institutions are the crank connecting rod mechanism and the valve train.

Torque converter

Generally between the engine and the gearbox. It plays the role of a clutch, a torque-increasing effect, a locking effect, etc.

When the turbine speed rises to the same speed as the impeller, the lockup clutch is engaged, and the torque converter transmits the engine power to the gearbox 1:1. Using liquid instead of air as the medium for transferring kinetic energy, the pump wheel will drive the turbine to rotate through the liquid, and then add a guide wheel between the pump wheel and the turbine to improve the transfer efficiency of the liquid. There are three pumps on the torque converter of the loader, namely the working pump, the steering pump and the variable speed pump. Some models also have a pilot pump on the steering pump.

Drive axle

The drive axle is the mechanism at the end of the driveline that changes the rotational speed and torque from the transmission and transmits to the drive wheels. The drive axle is at the end of the power transmission system and is mainly composed of the main reducer, the differential, the half shaft and the drive axle housing. Its basic functions are the followings:

  1. The engine torque from the universal transmission is transmitted to the driving wheels through the main reducer, differential, half shaft, etc., so as to reduce the speed and increase the torque.
  2. Through the main reducer bevel gear pair, the direction of torque transmission is changed.
  3. Realize the differential effect of the wheels on both sides through the differential to ensure that the inner and outer wheels turn at different speeds.
  4. Through the axle housing and the wheels, the bearing and torque transmission are realized.


The gearbox is the core component of the wheel loader’s transmission system. It has four main functions:

  1. Change the transmission ratio between the diesel engine and the wheels, thereby changing the loader’s driving speed and traction to meet the needs of work and driving.
  2. Enable the loader to drive backwards (in reverse gear). The diesel engine has only one direction of rotation, and the only way to move forward and backward is to rely on the gearbox.
  3. Cut off the power transmitted to the traveling device (ie, hang in neutral), so that the engine can not transmit power to the traveling device when it is running, which is convenient for the starting and parking of the engine.
  4. Change the torque or rotational speed output by the diesel engine with a small range into a large torque and rotational speed required by the working mechanism.

Liugong CLG856H loader

What is the working device of loader?

The working device of the loader consists of a bucket, a boom, a connecting rod, a rocker arm, a bucket cylinder, and a boom cylinder. The entire working device is hinged to the frame. The bucket is hinged with the bucket cylinder through the connecting rod and the rocker arm to load and unload the materials. The boom is hinged with the frame and the boom cylinder to lift the bucket. The tipping of the bucket and the lifting of the boom are hydraulically controlled.


How are loaders classified?

By engine power

The power is less than 74kw: a small-sized loader

The power ranges from 74kw to 147kw: a medium-sized loader

The power ranges from 147kw to 515kw: a large-sized loader

The power is more than 515kw: a super-large-sized loader

By walking structure

Tire type: The advantages are light weight, fast speed, flexible maneuverability, high efficiency, not easy to damage the road surface, and high ground pressure. The disadvantage is that it has poor passability and is widely used.

Crawler type: The advantages are small grounding specific pressure, good passability, low center of gravity, good stability, strong adhesion and large traction. The disadvantages are low speed, poor flexibility, high cost, and easy damage when walking. pavement.

By tonnage (most common classification)

We often abbreviated the loader model according to the tonnage, ranging from 16, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, among which 30 and 50 are commonly used, and the 100 type machine is currently only produced by Liugong in China.

16 means its bucket load is 1.6 tons, Same goes for the rest. If we put more weight on the loader, more can be loaded. Among them, the standard bucket capacity of 30 loader is generally 1.6m³, and the standard bucket capacity of 50 loader is generally 2.7m³.


What are the well-known manufacturers of loader?






Shandong Lingong (SDLG)


Liugong CLG862H loader





The USA:


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